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To understand such transitions, it is important to characterize diverse modes of sex determination and differentiation utilized by sexually reproducing metazoans.

Previous studies have described the genetic and/or environmental factors that determine male or female identity in developing embryos of dioecious organisms.

Somatic and germ cells were distinguishable owing to marked differences in the electron density of their cytoplasm and peripheral condensations of heterochromatin in the somatic cells (Fig. The somatic cells seen by TEM likely correspond to dmd-1-expressing cells.

Consistent with this idea, the dmd-1-positive cells in the testes of mature sexual planarians did not express germ cell markers, including nanos, germinal histone H4 (ref.

In contrast to dioecious organisms, simultaneous hermaphrodites produce gametes and accessory reproductive organs of both sexes.

In spite of all that has been learned about sex determination mechanisms in dioecious animals, little is known about how simultaneous hermaphrodites with no sex chromosomes specify and maintain the fates of male and female germ cells as well as sexually dimorphic somatic structures in the same body.

In addition, dmd-1 has a male-specific role in the maintenance and regeneration of the testes and male accessory reproductive organs.